On this page we present detailed results for our CenteringPregnancy model in San Diego, CA. You can find information about the following topics:

Baseline Demographics

Infant Health

Maternal Health

Financial Returns

We utilize birth data from San Diego County to obtain an estimate of the cohort size grouped by race/ethnicity and income less than 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). On the right is a table describing the subgroup percentage of the total population (47,276) by percent of Federal Poverty Line (FPL) and Group. Note that the eligible population are all infants born in San Diego County.

The primary outcomes for Centering Pregnancy is how the program affects infant health as measured by: low-birthweight rate, very low-birthweight rate, pre-term birth rate, and NICU admissions rate. The table below provides information as to the baseline rates of the outcomes prior to the intervention, which can be used as a reference with the graphics below. The graphs below describe the percentage point change in the given outcome with intervention. In addition, the graphs describe the differential impacts of the intervention across race/ethnicity and income groups. Strong equity impacts are observed across all outcomes.

Black, Non-Hispanic infants below 200% FPL would have the largest percentage point reduction in their low-birthweight rate (-2.5). Comparatively, White, Non-Hispanic, infants below 200% FPL would experience a much smaller reduction in their low-birthweight rate. The group that would experience the smallest reduction in the low-birthweight rate would be Hispanics whose parents incomes greater than 200% FPL.


For reference, the prevalence of low-birthweight births went from 13% to 10.5% (a change of -2.5 percentage points) without and then with CenteringPregnancy for Black, Non-Hispanics below 200% FPL.

Changes in the pre-term birth rate have strong equity impacts across the income threshold.

Black, Non-Hispanic infants below 200% FPL would have the largest percentage point reduction in their pre-term birth rate (-3). Comparatively, White, Non-Hispanic, infants below 200% FPL would experience a much smaller reduction in their pre-term birth rate. The group that would experience the smallest reduction in the pre-term birth rate would be White, Non-Hispanic infants whose parents have incomes greater than 200% FPL.

For reference, the prevalence of preterm births went from 15% to 12% (a change of -3 percentage points) without and then with CenteringPregnancy for Black, Non-Hispanics below 200% FPL.

The largest percentage point change among infant health outcomes occurs with the NICU admissions rate.

Black, Non-Hispanic infants below 200% FPL would have the largest percentage point reduction in NICU admission rate (-3.8). Comparatively, White, Non-Hispanic, infants below 200% FPL would experience a much smaller reduction in their NICU admission rate. The group that would experience the smallest reduction in their NICU admission rate would be White, Non-Hispanics infants whose parents incomes are greater than 200% FPL.

For reference, the prevalence of NICU admissions went from 16.0% to 12.2% (a change of -3.8 percentage points) without and then with CenteringPregnancy for Black, Non-Hispanics below 200% FPL.

The Centering Pregnancy program also directly impacts maternal behaviors and health. As a consequence of these impacts the program indirectly impacts maternal employment. The table below provides information as to the baseline rates of the outcomes prior to the intervention, which can be used as a reference with the graphics below. The graphs below describe the percentage point change in the given outcome with intervention. In addition, the graphs describe the differential impacts of the intervention across race/ethnicity and income groups. Strong equity impacts are observed across all outcomes.

The equity impacts for breast-feeding initiation are strong across both race/ethnicity and income categories. For example, the largest percentage point decrease occurs among Black, Non-Hispanic mothers with incomes less than 200% FPL (10.8). Comparatively, the smallest percentage point change occurs among White, Non-Hispanic mothers with incomes greater than 200% FPL (1.2). Thus, the gap in breast-feeding initiation bewteen the aforementioned groups is reduced by 9.6 percentage points.

For reference, the prevalence of breastfeeding initiation went from 86.6% to 97.4% (a change of 10.8 percentage points) without and then with CenteringPregnancy  for Black, Non-Hispanics below 200% FPL.

The percentage point change in breastfeeding exclusively at six months are relatively similar across all groups. However, the impacts are much smaller for the Other, Non-Hispanic group across both income thresholds. 

For reference, the prevalence of breastfeeding exclusively at 6 months went from 28.9% to 41.4% (a change of 20.5 percentage points) without and then with CenteringPregnancy for Black, Non-Hispanics below 200% FPL.

Reductions in maternal depression exhibit strong equity impacts across race/ethnicity. For example, the largest percentage point decreases occur among the Black, Non-Hispanic and Hispanic groups with incomes less than 200% FPL. 

For reference, the prevalence of maternal depression went from 7.6% to 13.0% (a change of 5.4 percentage points) without and then with CenteringPregnancy for Hispanics below 200% FPL.

In addition to reductions in maternal depression, CenteringPregnancy would have indirect effects on maternal employment through maternal depression.

The returns to state government would be $0.88 per dollar invested and to local government would be $0.11 per dollar invested if either the state or local government were to assume the total program cost of $29.3 million, respectively.

Sources of Financial Returns

At the local and state level, the majority of savings from the program, 51 percent in total, comes from improved productivity for both the mother and the infant when they become an adult.

An additional 45 percent of the savings are through the health savings at the state level. The remainder of savings is spread across increases in education and public assistance use.