On this page we present detailed results for our Child-Parent Centers model in Alabama. You can find information about the following topics:
The majority of Alabama residents are non-Hispanic white, representing 66% of the population. The largest minority group is Black or African American, at 25% of the population. Hispanic or Latino residents are 4% of Alabama's population. Asian Americans represent 1% of the population, and 4% are another race or mixed race.
The Child-Parent Centers program is available to children from households that earn less than 185% of the federal poverty line annually. About 51% of Alabama households earn less than this amount, and in some counties over 70% of families earn less than 185% of the federal poverty line.
Alabama has one of the lowest rates of early childhood education enrollment in the nation. Less than half of all four year olds are enrolled in a private or public preschool program in most counties, and in many counties, fewer than 20% are enrolled.
Based on enrollment and poverty statistics, we estimate that the Child-Parent Center program could be offered to 13,128 students per year, assuming a 75% take-up rate.
While Alabama has a statewide graduation rate of 89%, many poorer counties have high school graduation rates significantly below the statewide average, with some counties graduating as few as 66% of their high school students. Because a large percentage of projected enrollees in the program would come from counties with lower graduation rates, we project that 76.2% of the cohort would graduate from high school in the absence of the intervention.
With the intervention, we project that the high school graduation rate for the cohort would increase by 5.8 percentage points, to 82%. The increase would be most dramatic in counties where the high school graduation rate is lowest.
We project that 10,005 students out of each 13,128 student cohort would graduate from high school in the absence of the intervention. With the intervention, this would increase to 10,761, or an increase of 756 additional graduates.
Roughly 10.8% of Alabama students will be enrolled in special education between 2nd and 12th grades, for an average of three years each. With the intervention, this will decrease to around 5.9%. In total, the number of students ever requiring special education per cohort will decrease from approximately 1,418 to 775.
Approximately 9% of Alabama students are held back a year by the time they reach 8th grade, or approximately 1,195 students out of each cohort. With the intervention, this decreases to 5.5%, or 601 students, for a total decrease of roughly 532 students.
Alabama's overall economic engagement rate, which consists of people either employed or enrolled in an undergraduate or graduate program, is 68%. However, there is wide variation in this rate, and a number of counties in Alabama have economic engagement rates below 50%. Overall, the economic engagement rate over the cohort population is projected to be 63.8%. This suggests potential for higher rates of employment.
We project that the overall economic engagement rate among the cohort population will increase by 8.6 percentage points with the Child-Parent Centers program, rising from 65.6% to 74.3%. Among counties, the increase will range from a low of 5.4% in Lee County, to a high of 10.7% in Conecuh County.
Overall, 1,133 additional people in the cohort will be employed with the Child-Parent Centers program.
Alabama has an annual birth rate of 14.5 births per 1,000 girls aged 13-17. For a cohort of 6,564 female students, there would be approximately 476 births before age 18. With the intervention, this will decrease to approximately 380, a reduction of 96 births. The intervention will have the additional effect of preventing approximately 193 abortions per cohort.
Roughly 0.8% of children in Alabama experience child abuse or neglect each year. By age 18, there would be 1,354 instances of child abuse or neglect for each 13,128 student cohort.
With the intervention, this decreases to 894 cases of child abuse or neglect for each cohort, a decrease of 34%.
Research indicates that participation in the Child-Parent Centers program is associated with a reduction in symptoms of depression in adulthood. About 13% of Alabamans suffer from depression, and so we project that 1,707 people per cohort would suffer from depression as adults. With the Child-Parent Centers program, this would decrease to 1,238 people.
Roughly 4% of Alabamans abuse illegal substances. We project that approximately 500 people per cohort would be substance abusers as adults. With the program, this would decrease to 345 people.
Nearly 14% of Alabama youth will take up smoking, or roughly 2,770 people per cohort. With the intervention, roughly 469 fewer people will take up smoking per year, or a 21% reduction in the number of smokers.
We project that juvenile arrests will decrease by approximately 36 per year between the ages of 13 and 17, a 22% decrease.
We project that adult arrests between the ages of 19 to 39 will decrease from an average of 664 per year to 519, an annual decrease of 22%.
Providing an additional 13,495 children with one year of early childhood education in the Child-Parent Centers model will cost the state of Alabama $100 million for each yearly cohort, or a 1.4% increase in the state's $6.3 billion public education budget.
This spending will be offset by positive returns generated by improved social outcomes. The program begins generating financial returns in year one due to tax revenues from increased maternal employment. As the cohort passes through elementary school and middle school, the program generates returns from reduced special education and reduced grade retention, as well as reduced child abuse and fewer out of home placements. In the teen years, the program begins to generate returns from lower juvenile crime and lower teen births. After the cohort turns 18, the program generates returns from income and sales taxes on increased employment, lower rates of substance abuse, and lower rates of adult crime.
We project a rate of return to the city and state discounted returns of $1.22 per dollar invested using a 3% discount rate.
The program also generates social benefits, such as increased high school graduation and college attendance, and reduced victimization from crime. The economic value of these social benefits is not estimated directly in our model. However, the model does monetize benefits that are associated with these outcomes, such as higher employment and earnings, lower incarceration costs, and lower welfare costs.
Sources of Financial Savings
The largest percentage of savings, 24% come from reduced special education and grade retention costs. Increased income and sales tax revenues are a combined 29% of savings. 21% of savings come from a reduction in adult crime. The reduction in depression accounts for 10% of savings, and reduced child abuse accounts for another 9%.