On this page we present detailed results for our Child-Parent Centers model in Los Angeles. You can find information about the following topics:
The Child-Parent Centers program is available to children from households that earn less than 185% of the federal poverty line annually. In many areas of Los Angeles County, particularly south of downtown, in the north valley, and in the Palmdale/Lancaster region, the majority of families are in this income bracket.
Across Los Angeles County, 56% of 3 and 4 year-olds are enrolled in an early childhood education program.
Children in many low-income neighborhoods have access to early childhood education through Head Start funding. However, there are many areas throughout the city that still have a great amount of need for expanded early childhood education.
This chart shows the percentage of children who would be eligible for Child-Parent Centers funding who are not enrolled in an early childhood education program.
Los Angeles public schools have an 83.6% graduation rate. With expanded preschool, we project that the graduation rate among the cohort would increase by 4.6 percentage points to 88.2%, for an increase of 530 high school graduates in each 11,630 student cohort.
Roughly 14% of Los Angeles students will be enrolled in special education between 2nd and 12th grades, for an average of three years each. With the intervention, this will decrease to around 8%. In total, the number of students ever requiring special education per cohort will decrease from approximately 1,628 to 905.
Approximately 7.5% of Los Angeles students are held back a year by the time they reach 8th grade, or approximately 872 students out of each cohort. With the intervention, this decreases to 3.7%, for a total decrease of roughly 437 students.
The rate of economic engagement, which consists of either employment or enrollment in an undergraduate or graduate program, is projected to be 77.2% among the cohort population. Thus we project that 2,965 people would be unemployed each year in the absence of the program.
With expanded preschool, we project an additional 720 people would be employed as adults, reducing the number of unemployed to 2,245.
Los Angeles has an annual birth rate of 9.6 per 1000 girls aged 13-17. For a cohort of 5,900 female students, there would be approximately 534 births before age 18. With the intervention, this will decrease to approximately 396, a reduction of 138 births. The intervention will have the additional effect of preventing approximately 193 abortions per cohort.
Research shows that the Child-Parent Center program reduces child abuse or neglect by getting parents more involved in their children's development. Roughly 1.1% of children in Los Angeles County experience child abuse or neglect each year. By age 18, there would be 1,277 instances of child abuse or neglect for each 11,629 student cohort.
With the intervention, this decreases to 670 cases of child abuse or neglect for each cohort, a decrease of 47%.
Nearly 14% of Los Angeles youth will take up smoking, or roughly 1,628 people per cohort. With the intervention, roughly 335 fewer people will take up smoking per year, or a 21% reduction in the number of smokers.
Approximately 7% of the U.S. public experiences major depression at some point in their lives.
Research indicates that the Child-Parent Center model reduces depression later in life.
We project that juvenile arrests will decrease by approximately 210 per year between the ages of 13 and 17, a 38% decrease.
We project that adult arrests between the ages of 19 to 39 will decrease from an average of 549 per year to 375, an annual decrease of 32%.
Providing an additional 11,630 children with one year of early childhood education in the Child-Parent Centers model will cost the city of Los Angeles $161.3 million for each cohort, or a 1.5% increase in the city's $7.6 billion public education budget.
This spending will be offset by positive returns generated by improved social outcomes. The program begins generating financial returns in year one due to tax revenues from increased maternal employment. As the cohort passes through elementary school and middle school, the program generates returns from reduced special education and reduced grade retention. In the teen years, the program begins to generate returns from lower juvenile crime and lower teen births. After the cohort turns 18, the program generates returns from income and sales taxes on increased employment, and lower rates of adult crime.
We project a cumulative rate of return to the city and state of $2.21 per dollar invested, or discounted returns of $1.39 per dollar invested using a 3% discount rate.
The program also generates social benefits, such as increased high school graduation and college attendance, and reduced victimization from crime. The economic value of these social benefits is not estimated directly in our model. However, the model does monetize benefits that are associated with these outcomes, such as higher employment and earnings, lower incarceration costs, and lower welfare costs.
Sources of Financial Savings
The largest percentage of savings, 54%, come from reduced adult crime, which drives down government spending on arrests and incarceration. Education savings from reduced special education and grade repetition, and lower healthcare and social services spending from reduced child abuse, each represent another 13% of savings.
Lower rates of juvenile crime make up 8% of savings, and reduced medical expenditures from lower rates of adulthood depression make up 6%. Increased sales taxes from higher rates of employment make up 5% of savings. Finally, reduced teen births, smoking, and higher income taxes from increased employment and wages combine to make up another 6% of savings.